Mirrorless Gains and Losses

I overcame size with mechanics (Edwin Moses)

Almost the first thing that someone new to mirrorless cameras asks is this: how good are they? 

Well, they're quite good, as long as you don't buy one that's pink ;~). 

As with many things in life, you gain something and lose something when you pick a smaller or larger product. In the case of interchangeable lens cameras, that can get a little murkier than usual, as there is quite a range of product in this category. But a few things are clearly evident.

Mirrorless Losses
First, we have the obvious: you lose the mirrorbox when you move from a DSLR to a mirrorless camera. With that change comes the loss of an optical viewing system (it is replaced with electronic screens, which are not the same thing as a clear optical view). In some lower priced or older mirrorless cameras, you may also lose phase detect autofocus. That last bit is important because phase detect autofocus generally has faster subject acquisition (at a minor expense of accuracy) and far better focus tracking capabilities than an all contrast-based system. Update: here in 2024, virtually all current mirrorless cameras have phase detect autofocus systems.

The loss of the mirrorbox also means that you lose some bulk. The mirror inside DSLR cameras pushes the lens mount forward from the image sensor (the swinging mirror needs clearance). In a typical cropped-sensor DSLR (APS-C, DX, EF-S), that probably adds an inch to the depth of the camera, though there's a great deal of variation between models, so it's impossible to come up with an exact number. Still, a mirrorless camera, all else equal, will typically always be thinner than a DSLR. It also may be less tall if it doesn't have an electronic viewfinder (EVF) to replace the optical one in the DSLR.

The mirrorless diet tends to produce cameras that are lighter and less bulky, all else equal. Some mirrorless cameras get very close to compact camera size, yet retain higher capabilities.

No mirror potentially means less vibration that might impact slow shutter speeds and promote a slight camera motion to pixels in some conditions. Unfortunately, the shutter itself can impart visible shake at some shutter speeds (early m4/3 cameras were notorious for this; if your mirrorless camera has electronic first curtain shutter, you should always use it for shutter speeds <1/250). Mirrorless cameras these days also tend to have a completely silent mode, as well, though on lower-cost models be aware that this sometimes comes with significant rolling shutter artifacts.

But there are losses that might not be so great, too.

Most mirrorless cameras leave the image sensor exposed (the shutter is left open when not taking a picture, and there's no mirror in front to quasi-protect the sensor, either). Coupled with the fact it is so close to the mount, that makes it easy to get water, dirt, or something else on the sensor, or to even damage it if you aren't mindful of its vulnerability. (Canon EOS R closes the shutter when you remove the lens, but then the shutter itself is highly vulnerable to damage; other cameras are starting to add this as an optional setting, for example, the Nikon Z9.)

You're not looking at reality with a mirrorless camera (either via the rear LCD or a built-in EVF): you're looking at a slightly delayed interpretation of reality that’s close to what the camera would capture (i.e. exposure, contrast, saturation information can be seen). It takes a bit of time to grab an image from the sensor, shuffle it through the camera's electronics, and display it on the electronic displays. On some cameras this "lag" is extremely slight (Fujifilm X-H models, Nikon Z8/Z9, Sony A1/A9, Canon R3, for instance), while on others it's significant (Sony A6###, any Nikon Z models when set to Continuous H (extended) for example). In any case, you've lost seeing things exactly in real time as you're composing. (Most people adjust to this with practice, even on the cameras with the most lag, but it makes it more difficult to capture peak action without using continuous bursts.)

With some cameras, mostly low end, we also lose some sophistication. The camera makers early on seemed to think most mirrorless cameras were likely to be bought by more entry-level users, and thus while they often had some DSLR-like control in them, this was usually watered down in control capability, flexibility, feature depth, or all of the above. To some degree, that's still true of the lower-end mirrorless cameras. The high-end mirrorless cameras—the Canon R5/R6/R7, Panasonic GH6/S#, OMDS O-M1/E-M5, Fujifilm X-T4/X-H#, Nikon Zf/Z5/Z6/Z6 II/Z7/Z7 II/Z8/Z9, and Sony all the full frame models come to mind—are pretty much the equivalent of high-level DSLRs though.

The smaller size of most mirrorless cameras means that buttons and controls tend to get smaller. Using some of these cameras with gloves on (winter photography) can be a problem. I've got one mirrorless camera that has maybe a dozen small buttons on it that are problematic to find and use with anything but the thinnest gloves on. And I mean really thin gloves, as in glove liners.

It's not necessarily a loss, but if you're coming from bigger DSLRs that use CompactFlash cards, the smaller size of most mirrorless cameras means the smallest ones almost all use the smaller Secure Digital (SD) cards. A few use very small microSD cards, so take a close look at how images are stored if you’re making a transition. Many of the latest cameras use CFexpress or XQD cards (some Canon, Nikon, Panasonic, and Sony models).

One potentially big loss is how long the battery charge lasts while using the camera. The smaller sizes of most mirrorless cameras means that they often pack smaller batteries, as well. Given that the LCD and/or EVF is always on with these cameras, you may get significantly fewer images per charge than you do with even the low-end DSLRs (unless you always use your DSLR in Live View). 

Many of the mirrorless cameras have other losses, as well: watch out for weak or non-existent flashes, missing remote controls, missing GPS support, missing hand grips, and a host of other things. While these are called "system cameras" by the makers, the system isn't always fully accessorized. Fortunately, this has gotten better over time, particularly now that Canon and Nikon are fully supporting mirrorless.

Mirrorless Gains
I've probably made you pretty depressed with all the losses I describe, so the gains better make up for it, right? Fortunately, they do.

Autofocus on almost all current mirrorless cameras is now competitive with at least low-end DSLRs, particular for static subjects, but often for moving ones, too. The good news is that, because many use contrast-based autofocus in some form—even phase detect-based mirrorless cameras tend to do this as a last step when in single servo autofocus—they tend to be more precise than DSLRs were in focus.  When mirrorless cameras say they're in focus, they're in focus. Repeatability and precision of focus on static subjects is definitely better with mirrorless than with DSLRs.

Autofocus on some of the most recent mirrorless cameras has eclipsed that of the DSLRs. In particular, the Canon R3, Nikon Z8/Z9, and Sony A1/A9 Mark III have extremely high performance in their focus systems, coupled with a large degree of intelligence. Indeed, we're now seeing machine learning based subject recognition in almost all current full frame mirrorless cameras, and that's moving down to crop sensor ones, too.

The reduced size of the mirrorless cameras means reduced carrying issues. In some cases, that can be considerably reduced from even the low-end DSLRs. Several of the mirrorless cameras are what I'd call jacket-pocketable, even with their kit zoom lens mounted (e.g. Nikon Z50). There's a big difference between two to five pounds of weight hanging from your neck all day and a pound of stuff in your pocket. A big difference that can get bigger when we get to lenses (more in a bit). 

But be careful. Some of the size advantage of some mirrorless models is that they use smaller sensors. That’s particularly true of m4/3. Once we get to full frame mirrorless (e.g. the Canon RF, Nikon Z FX, Panasonic S, and Sony A7/A9 series), lenses tend to become the same size as the equivalent DSLR lenses, and the size/weight advantage begins to disappear, particularly when you pick f/2.8 zooms.

Likewise, the weight limits some airlines are now imposing on carry-ons come into play. On assignment with my DX DSLR gear I'm typically in the 20-30 pound pack range. With FX gear, I'm almost always well over 30 pounds. And that's for a minimal kit. My usual m4/3 kit not only weighs less than 10 pounds, but it fits in my laptop bag. Yes, in my laptop bag. That's two camera bodies, three lenses that take me from 14mm to 300mm equivalent, a bunch of accessories, and my laptop. (Some of you are asking "which laptop bag is that?" The Tenba Messanger Small bag. It'll hold a 15" laptop and all that mirrorless gear I just mentioned, and still have some room left over. Use the advertiser link, below to order one and support this site.)

(I've since switched to a Waterfield Air Porter.)

With the smaller size tends to come smaller lenses. Not always, as I noted above, but with many models there can be significant savings in size in lenses, too. First, because the mirror box is missing, the wide angle and normal lenses are designed for a short back focus and can be smaller. While the mount-to-sensor distance alone doesn't dictate small lenses, it has put a different twist on what consititutes the right sized lens, particularly for the wider angle lenses. Different companies have gone at this differently.

Olympus, for example, has put a strong emphasis on small lenses. Coupled with their 2x crop sensor, which already has a small image circle, Olympus has thought to make many of their lenses “collapsing”—they're smaller when not being used than when they are. The 9-18mm and the 14-42mm kit lens are two good examples of lenses that are extremely small while traveling, yet still quite competent in use. Nikon also makes a number of collapsing lenses, which is very travel friendly.

Sony was at the other extreme. It appears that they originally pretty much took their APS-C lens designs and did little tweaking to make them smaller. Other than the 16mm f/2.8 lens, almost none of Sony's first E-Mount lenses could be considered small for the sensor size, though many of them are fairly light in weight. Early on, the FE-Mount for the Sony A7/A9 cameras was more of the same, in spades, particularly when you get to the f/2.8 zooms. Fortunately, Sony caught on and has been producing smaller and better lenses. Their 400mm f/2.8 was the lightest such lens when it came out, and they've added other lenses that do well in in the size/weight comparison to DSLR lenses.

Fujifilm APS-C, meanwhile, has many choices of smaller lenses, particularly prime lenses. 

Nikon has been consistently downsizing their DSLR lenses as they come to the Z mirrorless mount, and using new optical design capabilities to further size and weight reduce them. 

So the size/weight/traveling benefits vary between the different mirrorless camera options. Right now you can pick between the small DX sensor Nikon Z50 (or Z30 and Zfc) and the larger full frame Nikon Z mount cameras, for example. So the gain in overall kit size and weight can be  quite variable. Make sure you know what it is you're seeking in terms of light/small and make sure that the camera and lenses you choose attains that.

Another thing that people like to point out is that, since these cameras do very respectable video—and in many cases now, superb 4K+ video)—you can stuff them in places that you normally can't get a professional video camera. Olympus Pen cameras were used to film in places on the track for the movie Secretariat, for example, including in the starting gate. Thin is good when you're trying to pin a camera to a wall.

It may not seem like it at first, but there are certainly other gains, some of which you might not have thought of.

For example, when I use my mirrorless cameras, I can often photograph without looking like I am. Yes, I know that I can do something similar with Live View on many DSLRs, but the small size coupled with "not-at-eye" shooting (especially with the tilt/swivel/articulating LCDs) means people just don't pay a lot of attention to me when I'm using mirrorless cameras. Silent photography is also possible on virtually all mirrorless cameras. That makes it easier for capturing true candids (obviously some cameras are better at this than others, but all the mirrorless cameras look at lot less professional and trigger less "look at me while I'm photographing you” response than my big, bulky FX DSLRs). 

But What About Image Quality?
I've been conspicuously avoiding talking about image quality for a reason: there's quite a variation here, and it also depends upon what you're trying to accomplish. 

At the extreme end of the scale, the sensor on the Pentax Q (no longer sold new outside Japan) was so small it's...well, it's a sensor from an older compact camera. That meant that the Q performs like an older compact camera when it comes to image quality, which is to say that it struggles with very low light situations. 

At the other extreme, we have the Sony offerings with their state-of-the-art full frame sensors. The A1 is a hefty 50mp, the A7R Mark V model clocks in at 61mp, the A7 Mark IV is 33mp, the A9 Mark III is 24mp, while the A7s Mark III comes in at 12mp. All photograph as well as the best full frame DSLRs in low light, plus the first two have a pixel count that lets you print extremely large. The same is basically true in the Canon and Nikon full frame lineups.

But is that what you really need? Are you really photographing at ISO 3200 and above and are you really printing at 19" and above? Because if you aren't, most of the smaller sensor models in the mirrorless realm might work perfectly fine for you. I use my APS-C (DX) Nikon Z50 and Fujifilm X-S20 quite a lot, and with the kit lenses they're jacket-pocket cameras that are easy to travel with.

Meanwhile, the m4/3 models offer a lot of fast lens choice, and fast lenses are just as instrumental as sensor size when tackling low light. Compare the 12mm f/2 on the OMDS cameras with the 16mm f/2.8 on the Sony E-Mount. From an exposure standpoint, you're using a stop faster with the same angle of view, so if the Sony A6xxx is at about ISO 1600, the m4/3 camera is at ISO 800 with the same shutter speed. (Yes, I know there are still some other factors involved, but let's not get down in the weeds on a general introduction article. We're in the "did you get the picture and is it decent" realm here.) The Olympus is also stabilized (via the sensor), while most Sony APS-C models are not, which may mean that you can use slower shutter speeds (but not if there's subject motion).

That said, I've been shooting with m4/3 cameras for over ten years now. From the beginning, I've found them functional, useful, and capable of all the image quality I need for many types of photography. With the right lens set, I'm not particularly afraid of low light. For my landscape work, I often use stitching techniques for large prints anyway, so I end up with a smaller, simpler system that I can carry further into the backcountry. Here's an example of one such stitched image that prints nicely at over 36” wide (taken with an Olympus E-P2):

US UT Escalante 0412 EP1

During the time I’ve been using mirrorless, I've posted a lot of images without referencing what camera they came from. People weren't saying "oh, that must have been from one of those small cameras you've been using" or "that must be from you high-end DSLR." In the end, cameras are just tools. You learn how to optimize your use of the tool and you go out and create. 

This is not to say there aren't limits. The m4/3 cameras, in particular, just don't cut it for me to perform really low light work. Nor are they always the right choice for me when I do wildlife work (I'm out before dawn and after sunset, and with big lenses). But I use small mirrorless cameras for most of my photography these days, more than most people may imagine. 

The Bottom Line
Assess your needs. Assess what these mirrorless cameras can do (I'll try to help with my reviews and other articles on this site). If the two things overlap, then welcome to the sans mirror club. If they don't, well, check out my other sites, as I have information about larger and smaller cameras there. 

Looking for gear-specific information? Check out our other Web sites:
DSLRS: dslrbodies.com | general: bythom.com| Z System: zsystemuser.com | film SLR: filmbodies.com

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