A System Guide to Sony E-Mount and FE-Mount (Nee: NEX)

bythom sonyaps 2023
bythom sonyff 2023

Sony has pretty much confused everyone at some point with its ever-changing mirrorless lineup. We have had name changes, multiple mounts, different sensor sizes, fast updates, no updates, different target users, and even more to contend with.

Sony introduced its first mirrorless cameras after m4/3, but not long after. The original NEX-3 and NEX-5 models appeared in Spring of 2010 and established what is now a wide line of mirrorless products. Indeed, Sony uses the E-mount that was introduced with the NEX-3 and NEX-5 for a wide range of both still and video cameras.

However, Sony dropped the NEX name in late 2013 and now calls everything Alpha. Plus they came out with a full frame sensor mirrorless system (FE mount) that is a kissing cousin of the original (E mount). So we have some explaining to do.

Generational 411
In the still realm, we now have six generations of mirrorless models from Sony:

  • First Generation: NEX-3, NEX-5
  • Second Generation: NEX-3C, NEX-5N (5N added an external EVF option)
  • Third Generation: NEX-F3, NEX-7 (7 added an internal EVF and more controls)
  • Third-and-a-half Generation: NEX-3N, NEX-5R, NEX-6 (Normally these might be considered 3rd generation, but the addition of Wi-Fi and/or PlayMemories Apps sets them apart as a distinct new breed)
  • Fourth Generation: A3000, A5000, A6000 replace the NEX (APS sensor) models, A7, A7R, A7S add new FE mount models
  • Fifth Generation: A7 Mark II, A7R Mark II, A7S Mark II, A6300
  • Sixth Generation: A6100, A6400, A6500, A7 Mark III, A7R Mark III, A9, A9 Mark II, A7C
  • Seventh Generation: A1, A7 Mark IV, A7S Mark III, A9 Mark III

We also have a plethora of Sony dedicated video cameras that use the E-mount: VG-10, VG-20, VG-30, VG-900, EA-50U, FS-100, FS-700, FS5, FS7, FX-3, FX-6, and FX-9 to name just a few. These range from camcorder like models (VG series) to destined-for-Hollywood models (FS7, now Mark II), with many other video variations in the middle. Personally, I approve of this kind of bifurcation, but only if the still cameras continue to emphasize still features and ergonomics (with video on demand) and the video cameras emphasize video features and ergonomics (with stills on demand). So far, so good.

As with most systems, higher numbers within a fixed digit realm tend to indicate more capability. We had 3, 5, 6, and 7 in the NEX model lineup, but this has changed to names such as A3000, A5000, and A6600 in the new lineup. Worse still, the A3000 (and A3500 in Australia) was a different style than the NEX models and the A5000 and A6000 that replaced them. The A1, A7, and A9 models are yet a different style, too, being more DSLR-like than the rangefinder-like A5000 and A6000. Then the A7C and ZV-EV10 reintroduce the A6xxx style, only with a high emphasis on vlogging and video. 

The full frame A7 went through a bit of a transition over time. The A7 Mark II added a sophisticated sensor-based IS system and refined the body design from the original. These changes then were rolled through the entire line, so as I write this, all the A7 models have sensor-based IS. At present we have one Mark III and two Mark IV models that are current Plus now we have new top full frame models in the A1 and A9 Mark II, which are intended to challenge Canon and Nikon’s top flagship DSLRs.

The Sony Uniqueness
From the beginning, the big draw to the original NEX series was the use of Sony EXMOR APS sensors (Super35 sensors for many of the video models). That excitement was doubled with the introduction of the A7 models with full frame EXMOR sensors, and in some cases EXMORs with new and interesting technologies (e.g. back side illumination, or BSI, and eventually the stacked sensor on the A9, A9 Mark II, and A1). All else equal, a bigger sensor does have benefits in low light and in providing potentially shallower depth of field. The downside is that a bigger sensor tends to require bigger lenses, too. 

Which brings up one of the cognitive dissonances in the Sony designs: the camera bodies are exceedingly small (even the full frame A1, A7, and A9 models, and even after they got a bit of a size boost in the third generation to accommodate a bigger battery and a larger hand grip). Some of Sony’s A6xxx cameras are smaller than some m4/3 cameras, which have smaller sensors. 

Yet the lenses are DLSR-sized for the most part, and that’s particularly true for the full frame Alpha models (FE mount). Those that remember the old Sony R1 remember the "all lens with a handle" design very well, and some of the Sony mirrorless models certainly echo that. This tends to lead to a left-hand-under-lens, right-hand on the grip shooting style, which isn't a bad idea (done right you'll further stabilize the camera/lens). But not everyone likes that. Indeed, those seeking out mirrorless cameras because they're small and light tends to balk at the lens sizes with the A7 models as you go for fast lenses or long zooms. 

The other aspect of the NEX-to-Alpha change that was off-putting to some was Sony's constant changes in camera controls (UI). On the very original firmware for the NEX-3 and NEX-5, every control pretty much centered around three buttons and one dial, and these were definitely not optimally configured. Firmware updates gave users customization options that pretty much ended most of the complaints, and subsequent models improved on it. Indeed, the NEX-5R, NEX-6, and NEX-7 all had plenty of direct user control and configuration, and while that was more "modern" than "traditional,” I didn't have any real problems with that design. 

More recently, the latest generation of Sony cameras have standardized on yet another Sony UI (A7 Mark IV, A7S Mark III, A1, A9 Mark III). I find that current implementation of the Sony user experience the best yet, though the menus still have some clarity issues and need even more help messages than before.  I applaud Sony for not just giving us the same old, same old, but actually trying to put together something that's a little better for those willing to invest some learning time into it. 

The bad news is that there hasn’t been UI consistency from generation to generation of Sony mirrorless cameras. The A7S Mark III introduced the updated menu system with more organization. I hope that we’ve now locked and loaded on a “final” overall solution, as that current UI is fine (though buttons tend to be in poor positions and too small, and wording and abbreviation clarity still needs refining). 

One highlight of the Sony mirrorless line has been sensors. These days we've got the older state-of-the-art 24mp APS-C sensors in the E-mount crop-sensor cameras, and they perform remarkably well in low light and are capable of very good resolution. In the full frame FE-mount cameras, we’ve got 12mp, 24mp, 33mp, 50mp, and 61mp choices. These are essentially the same sensors or relatives to those in Sony's earlier DSLRs (and in some Nikon and Pentax DSLRs). 

There's little to complain about with the current EXMOR sensors; perhaps the one drawback being that they do tend to overheat in constant video or Live View use, especially in really hot weather. But that's a manageable problem for most. 

Slowly we've gotten more E-mount lenses, but a Sony APS-C mirrorless user still has nowhere near the choice an m4/3 or Fujifilm user has right now. Sony has mostly concentrated recently on adding wide angle options for APS-C. 

With FE, the story is both better and worse. Originally we had four choices, two primes that are terrific lenses, and two zooms that were disappointing (even the Zeiss 24-70mm f/4). This was later augmented with many additional lenses, but for awhile many were the same size as DSLR lenses, so the small/light advantage was disappearing for Sony FE. This has changed recently, as Sony apparently decided that smaller size was important. So be careful when selecting lenses if size/weight is high on your priority list.

The best news is this: E and FE attracted a great deal of third party lens support, primarily from Sigma and Tamron, but also from some Chinese optics firms. FE now has the broadest selection of lenses for any full frame mount.

Overall, I’d say the FE side of the Sony lens equation is now quite good and gets better every quarter, particularly now that there's plentiful third-party support for the mount. The E side, though, seems to need more attention, though the recent trio of wide angle lenses was highly welcome.

Finally, note that Sony has introduced lenses that are primarily for video users (e.g. the 28-135mm f/4). While you can use these on the still cameras, they are clearly designed for video work, with geared rings, true varifocal designs, etc. That tends to make them a bit big and bulky for still users.

Don't Go App (pronounced aye-p)
The NEX-5R and NEX-6 introduced a feature that Sony calls PlayMemories Apps. This was present in all fourth and most fifth generation Sony mirrorless cameras (A5000, A6100, A6300, A6500, and all A7 models until the Mark IIIs). The idea was sound, but it was completely unclear if the execution would ever live up to the expectations. It looked like a Sony-originated and controlled play pen, and Sony needed to do a lot more than they showed in order to make this a reason to consider Sony mirrorless over another.  

When Sony removed PlayMemories from the A7 Mark III models, the A9, the A6400, and all later models. they didn’t always bring some of the function back to the camera (e.g. Time-lapse). The Wi-Fi inclusion on all the recent cameras should be useful to some, however. Here in 2024, the PlayMemories Web site and apps are now gone.

Further, now Sony's full developer kit for writing external apps for the cameras only applies to the very latest models (e.g. A7 Mark IV, A7C, A7S Mark III, A7R Mark IV/V, A9 Mark II/III, and A1). 

First and foremost, make sure you can live with the existing and known-to-be-coming lenses. If you can't, then Sony mirrorless isn't the system for you. That’s more true for the E-mount models (A6xxx);  the FE-mount models (A1, A7, A9 in all generations) now have an almost complete lens set from very wide angle to moderate telephoto (particularly if you count third-party lenses). 

These days you have two choices for cameras: APS-C or full frame sensor. While you can use E-mount and FE-mount lenses on both types of cameras, so far the Sony choices really don’t make for a good mix-and-match system (e.g. one full frame body as the main camera, an APS-C body for backup). So choose your sensor type first and foremost. 

That also chooses a body type (DSLR-style) if you choose full frame. But if you choose APS-C, you end up with rangefinder type bodies.

Personally, the sweet spots of the Sony lineup for me are these:

  • A1 — Clearly an excellent flagship, though pricey.
  • A7 Mark IV — An excellent all-around choice that probably should most folk's full frame choice.
  • A6400 — Not the top APS-C model, but still a high-performing one.

Note: Sony has kept many of their previous generation cameras available as new even after launching the latest models. That means you have some excellent lower-cost options if you don’t mind going back a generation or two. The original A6000 that kicked off the fourth generation is a decent camera, as is the A7 Mark III. But you often can find them at discount, so it’s one way of sampling the Sony systems without committing large sums of money.

Thom's Experience
I've been photographing with the Sony mirrorless cameras from the beginning. I have a lot of behind-the-camera time on the NEX-5, NEX-6, NEX-7, A6000, A6300, A6400, and A7/A7S/A7R,  A7 Mark III, A7R Mark II, A7R Mark III, A7R Mark IV, A9 Mark II, and A1. I own an A1 and a basic set of very good Sony lenses. Sony has gotten better with every model iteration, which is to be commended, and the two best (and highly versatile) mirrorless cameras on the market as I write this are the Nikon Z9 and the Sony A1. 

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